Cancer….. Whenever we heard that this person have a cancer…We fell sympathy for that person but we don’t able to do anything. So, guys it’s important and it’s save for us and our family to know about cancer- meaning, properties, types ,causes ,detection and diagnosis ,treatment of cancer.
Firstly know about causes of cancer
Etiology is the study of causes of disease. The physical ,biological and chemical agents, which induce cancer growth , are called carcinogens
- Physical agents :- They include ionizing radaitation like UV rays from sun, X-ray, gamma-rays, and particulate radiation from radioactive substances. These radiations are know to repture DANA strands and induce mutations to cause neoplastic transformation and cancer e.g., excessive exposure to sunlight may stimulate the development of skin cancer.
- Chemical agents :- The chemical agents like polycyclic hydrocarbons, heavy metallic in etc. are also carcinogens. Hormones like testosterone and estrogen are know to cause prostate cancer and breast cancer respectively. Chewing of beetles is known to cause cancer. Cigarette and cigar tobacco smoking causes lips,mouth and lung cancer due to presence of a carcinogens agent, benzpyren and N-nitrosodimethylene. Dye workers using aniline dye have a high rate of bladder cancer. An animal protein rich diet is known to cause cancer of large intestine. Recently Dr. Leif Busk of Sweden reported that when high carbohydrate foods like potato chips and French fries are heated then a carcinogens chemical,called acrylamide is forned.
- Biological agents :- Cervix cancer is caused by cancer . Tumor causing viruses like Epstein Barr virus. Herpes simplex type-2 virus etc. are called oncoviruses. These oncoviruses have viral oncogenes (v-one genes) which cause oncogenic transformation.
Now after knowing about cancer causes its time to talk about Properties of cancer cells
- Cancer cells show uncontrolled mitotic division causing unorganized growth.
- Due to uncontrolled growth and division of cells ,a tumor (also called Neoplasm meaning ‘new growth’) is generally formed .
- Cancer cells are far less adhesive than the normal cells, so these generally wander through the tissues to cause cancerous growth in different parts of the body . This ability of cancer cells to invade new sites is termed as Metastasis.
- Cancer cells exhibit a number of alterations on cell surface , in the cytoplasm and in their genes.
- Cancer cells do not undergo differentiate.
Now know about cancer types:-
Cancer are classified into different types on the basis of their location or the body site from which they are arise namely:
- Carcinomas: Those cancer types which are located in epithelial tissues and the gland e.g, Breast cancer, stomach cancer,lung cancer, skin cancer, pancreas cancer etc. Cancer of epithelial gland are called Adenoma. These form about 85% of total cancer types . About 85% of all tumors are of this kind. Melanomas are those carcinoma which involve melanocytes of skin.
- Sarcomas: Those cancer which are located in connective and muscular tissues derived from mesoderm e.g, cancer of bones, lymph nodes and muscules. These are called lymphomas if affect the lymphatic system (e.g, Hodgkin’s disease in mam which is characterized by enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen etc.) Lipomas if affect the adipose tissue and Osteoma if in bones. These form only 1% of all cancer types.
- Leuke( Blood cancer ): These are characterized by increased WBC count of the blood (up to 2,00,000-1000000/mm cube) due to their increased formation in the bone marrow. This decreases the erythropoiesis and RBC count. These are most common types of cancer affecting the children below 15 years of age . Bone marrow transplantation is recommended.