Cancer…..In today’s world everyone familiar with this word. How much this word seems to be simple but it’s not as exactly as simple disease………It’s danger for health. Sometime it leads to the death of a person.
What is cancer?
Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled growth and division of certain boby tissues,so forming a tumor. It is one of the major killers today. Normally cell division is a regulated process. Mature cells are replaced by new cells produced by cell division and differentiate. Due to alteres Gene activity, normal control mechanism is lost and the abnormal cell growth and cell division takes place.
When cells in some area of the boby duplicate unusually quickly , the excess of tissue that develops is called tumor. The physical and chemical agents , which induce cancer growth, are called carcinogens. The study of cancer is called oncology.
The word cancer doesn’t refer to a single disease but number of changes of the boby. It is not a contagious disease nor it is an inherited one , but it is known that the chance of a person getting cancer increases if any of the parents or siblings had suffered from it
A tumor may or may not be cancerous. The tumors are of two type namely
- Benign or Non-Malignant Tumors.
- Malignant or Metastatic Tumors.
Benign or Non-Malignant Tumors:
They are enclosed in the connective tissue and they remain confined to the site of their organ only. They may grow in size but don’t spread to other parts of the body . Metastatic doesn’t occur. Growth rate is slow . Cells are more adhesive.
Malignant or Metastatic Tumors:
They are not enclosed in any specific tissue. They are not confined to the original tissue. The cancerous cells are carried by blood or lymph to other parts of the body where they spread secondary cancers or metastatic. Growth rate is rapid. Cells are less adhesive.
Initially they show slow growth called Latent stage. But later growth becomes very rapid , causing overcrowding and damage to normal cells. But later these enter the metastasia stage in which the cancer extends to the neighbouring tissues like the roots of a trees. Small pieces of primary tumor breaks off and are carried to other parts of the body by blood or lymph, where these form the secondary tumor. This process is called metastasis. So metastasis is the process of transference of cancerous cells from the site of origin to distant parts of the boby .
The most frequent sites of metastasis are lymph nodes, lungs, liver, skin and brain. Metastatic stage usually occurs after the age of 50 years , when it is practically impossible to cure and proves to be fatal.