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Typhoid – cause , transmission, symptoms,diagnosis, treatment, vaccination and how to avoid it.

Hello friends , here I am going to telling you about a serious disease…. That is Typhoid. And also about it’s causes, treatment, transmission, prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and how to avoid it.


Typhoid is a common disease and here you get information about it’s causes, prevention, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, vaccination and how to avoid Typhoid.

It is the 5th most common communicable disease of India.It attacks mainly children in the age group of 1-15 years.

CAUSE

It is caused by a Gram negative bacillus bacterium  salmonella typhus  commonly found in intestine of man initially but later spreads to other organs of body.
TRANSMISSION

It is transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with  faeces of an infected person which contain Salmonella typhus  . The bacteria then perforate through intestinal wall and phagocytised by macrophages.

INCUBATION PERIOD

About 1-weeks

SYMPTOMS

Headache, classic typhoid fever ( high temp for three weeks which reaches it’s peak in the afternoon . If care is not taken, relapse is common) , profuse sweating , lesion of intestinal Mucosa , haemorrhaged , ulceration of intestine ,red-colored rashes or spots on chest and upper abdomen( during 2nd week). In some case bloody nose , cough and abdominal pain is also seen.

DIAGNOSES

Widal test comes positive during the second week

PREVENTION

The preventive measures include:-

  • Proper sanitation of human faeces
  • Screening of water and food source.
  • TAB Vaccine ( typhoid-paratyphoid A and B Vaccine) provides immunity for about 3 years.
  • Typhoral oral vaccine.

Typhoid vaccination

If traveling to an area where typhoid is prevalent, vaccination is recommended.
Before traveling to a high-risk area, getting vaccinated against typhoid fever is recommended. This can be achieved by oral medication or a one-off injection:
Oral – live, attenuated vaccine. Consists of 4 tablets – one taken every other day, the last of which is taken 1 week before travel.
Shot – inactivated vaccine, administered 2 weeks before travel.
Note: vaccines are not 100 percent effective and caution should still be exercised when eating and drinking.
Vaccination should not be started if the individual is currently ill or if they are under 6-years of age. Anyone with HIV should not take the live, oral dose.
There may be side effects to the vaccine:
Shot: fever (1 in 100 cases)
Shot: headache (1 in 30 cases)
Shot: redness or swelling at the site of injection (1 in 15 cases)
Oral: fever or headache (1 in 20 cases)
Oral: stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, rash (rare)
Even when the symptoms of typhoid have passed, it is still possible to be carrying the bacteria. As a result, it is difficult to entirely stamp out the disease because carriers whose symptoms have finished may stop showing caution when washing food or interacting with other.

How to avoid it:

Countries with less access to clean water and washing facilities typically have a higher numbers of Typhoid cases.

Typhoid is spread by contact and ingestion of infected human feces. This can happen through an infected water sources or when handling food.

Atlast ,i am going to telling you about some rules which will help you to minimize the chance of Typhoid infection:-

  • Drink bottled water.
  • Don’t have ice in drinks.
  • Avoid eating at street food stands, and only eat food that is still piping hot.
  • Avoid raw fruit and vegetables and peelfruit yourself.

 

 

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